Mano Dura (Iron Fist) and the Ley Antimaras (Anti-Gang Law). Honduras. Social violence, (in)security, and security policies in Honduras and Central. America. Con la aprobación de la Ley Antimaras se sanciona con una pena de un fuerte lo que llevaba el Estado de Honduras, por lo que empezaron. cargo de las Fuerzas. Armadas. Reforma constitucional. Nueva Ley. Orgánica de la. Policía. Ley anti-maras. Reforma del. Código Penal. Crisis y reorganización.
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Executive Summary Born in the aftermath of civil war and boosted by mass deportations from the U.
4. Case studies
In El Salvador, Catalogue Author s Publishers Selections Excerpts. All three countries are experimenting with new forms of regional collaboration in law enforcement.
The role of extortion in driving forced displacement is harder to pinpoint due to a lack of reliable statistics, as well as the difficulty in identifying a single cause behind emigration. Although they are not the only groups dedicated to violent crime, the maras have helped drive Central American murder rates to highs unmatched in the world: Plan Escoba that specifically targeted youth gangs, the maras are currently not at the forefront of security matters as the focus instead lies on fighting organized crime and the drug trade.
The resulting risk of transforming them into major political actors must be carefully gauged by authorities and groups engaged in peacebuilding processes. Although operations may be becoming more technical and efficient, there is no evidence of maras becoming higher level criminal organisations in the league of other transnational cartels. antimarae
“Ley antimaras” debía ser derogada tras sentencia de CorteIDH pero al contrario será endurecida
How to Get U. The Salvadoran maras were able to enforce the truce due to their vertical leadership, the effectiveness of their punishment system, and their internal consensus around a number of demands.
The cumulative effects, however, have fallen far short of expectations. Despite enormous increases of detentions of gang members, Libertad Azul failed to break up the maras and reduce violence. Homicide levels started to escalate to pre-truce levels, reaching an unprecedented high in Data from the World Prison Brief, www.
El déjà-vu de las políticas de seguridad en Honduras
Inthe same poll found In the last five years, however, the menace of organized crime and drug trafficking has seemed to increasingly replace the security threat previously associated with youth gangs. Hide Footnote The essential but menial tasks they carry out include conveying messages from jailed gang leaders and collecting extortion payments.
El Diario de Hoy produced a series of articles in mapping out the presence of different cliques in San Salvador. Suspects were identified on the basis of flimsy evidence, such as tattoos. Reversing a Dangerous Decision. Extortion schemes that depend on coercive control over communities and businesses, and which have caused the murder of hundreds of transport workers and the exodus of thousands in the past decade, could be progressively transformed through a case-by-case approach.
The Construction of the Maras – 4. Case studies – Graduate Institute Publications
In the longer term, defusing gang violence angimaras depend on implementation of various overlapping policy innovations, several of which are suggested below. This question is even more pressing when political motivations behind certain portrayals blur the lines between politicization and securitization.
According to a recent poll, Hide Footnote The cross-border links between these gangs in the three Northern Triangle countries, as well lej reported connections between them and drug, arms and human trafficking organisations operating in the region, have spurred fears that these groups pose international security threats.
Strengthened law enforcement is necessary, but should be implemented carefully to avoid any backlash and be mindful of the diversity of local criminal behaviour. Available on the Internet: Inthe government started redistributing gang members across the prison system, and no longer respected the designation of special prisons for each organisation. Gang members imprisoned in Quezaltepeque prison, on the outskirts of San Salvador city in El Salvador, pose for a photograph, on 2 June For more information, see http: This context, combined with socioeconomic and structural problems, is crucial for tracing the origins of a climate of fear and violence that characterizes contemporary El Salvador: At the lowest rungs of the ladder, so-called paros or banderas flags act as auxiliaries, collectors of extortion money, gun-runners, spies and recruitment officers.
Solo en84 taxistas fueron asesinados. But the public and political responses to them, rooted in stigmatisation of the poor and a blind faith in the effects of tough security measures, have worsened violence and levels of social animosity. Combatting organized crime appears thus to be of a more pressing need than tackling gang-related violence.
El Salvador and Guatemala established a High-Level Security Group in August to improve information exchange and implement joint programs in their fight against transnational organised crime. In fact, the Iron Fist policies have turned out to be highly inconsistent, to institutionalize the maras in El Salvador, and to thereby contribute to the gang problem, rather than to solve it ECA ; Hume ; Cruz Hide Footnote Other non-gang criminal groups in Guatemala, popularly known as paisasare reportedly seeking to grab greater shares of the extortion market.
But governments need not enter into direct dialogue with maras for a process of pacification to get underway, both through clear messages from governments as to their willingness to address the causes behind the gang phenomenon and through moves by the maras to reduce levels of violence.
While the Mara Salvatrucha and the 18 th Street Gang are the two major gangs, Honduran authorities estimate a total number exceeding gangs present in the country, in contrast to El Salvador where the MS and the M are clearly dominant Bosworth These youth, mainly Salvadorans, banded together to protect themselves.
Hide Footnote A recent survey in El Salvador has found that extortion is on the rise and now affects 22 per cent of firms, although only 15 per cent of all incidents are reported, reflecting the lack of confidence in the response capacities of the local police and judiciary. Indeed, Ribando Seelke Honudras for comes from the Statistical Yearbook of the Immigration and Naturalization Service.
Periodic vetting of prison guards and tighter control on electronic and personal communications of prisoners, oey without trampling on their rights to visits, are essential to halting criminal exploitation of jail systems.
Buy Print version amazon. A total of transportation workers were killed between and in El Salvador, where the maras brought public transport to a standstill in and again in Another alternative is to use existing market-based processes to integrate former gang members into productive activity, as has occurred in some instances.
Following this logic, the maras would need to honduraz addressed by public policy before they could be framed as a substantial danger.